Prepositions - 介词


from next door (从隔壁)
from my friend (从我的朋友那儿)


of gold (金质的)
of the city (城市的)


for 2 weeks (两周之久)
for you (为你)


to the store (去商场)
to California (去加利福尼亚)
to work (去工作)


at 3 o'clock (在三点)
at the age of thirteen (在十三岁时)
at the University of California (在加利福尼亚大学)


in the United States (在美国)
in Santa Cruz, California (在加利福尼亚的圣克鲁斯)
in the bedroom (在卧室里)


on the table (在桌子上)
on time (准时)


to 通常用来表示方向
at 时间点,高度,年龄 速度,温度 距离,地点(通常是一座较 大的建筑或某个组织、研究 所)
in 国家,城市,某件东西,如 书包、抽屉、床、房间、冰 箱等
on 表示位置,如:桌子上

Uses of prepositions - 介词的使用


- 表示地点关系: at, in, on, over, under
- 表示时间关系: before, after, from at, by, for, in, on, until
- 表示动作方向 from, to, into, onto, off, out of
- 表示不同状态 with, between, by


Prepositions - 介词

on - 表达星期几或日期
at - 表达具体时刻(如:两点)
in - 表达月份
during - 表达一个时间段(如:一周)

'On' - 介词 on

介词 on 可以用于:
1. 描述地点

例如: His name is on the door.

2. 描述时间

例如: Let's meet on Friday.

3. 表达 ' 关于,有关……' 的意思。

例如: Here's a book on management.

4. 表达某种状态或情形。

例如: He's on holiday at the moment.
  He's on sick leave.

'For' and 'since' - for 和 since

介词 for 和 since 都用来表示时间,它们之间的区别是,for 后面跟一个时间段,而 since 后面跟一个时间点。
She's been here for three weeks.

She's been here since 1995.

The preposition 'in' - 介词 in

介词 in 用于描述一个封闭或有界限的空间。

in a room (房间) in the kitchen
in a building (建筑) in the hospital
in a city (城市) in Dublin
in a country (国家) in Ireland
in a continent (大陆) in Europe

介词 in 强调,某物在一个封闭或有界限的空间内存在。
What's in the box?
He's in the pool.

The preposition 'at' - 介词 at

at 用于描述在一个有界的空间内(如一个城市中)具体的某一处(如该城市中的某个车站)。
at home in Dublin
at the station in Paris
at the bus stop in New York
at the end of the street

描述某项活动时,也经常使用 at。
at the concert
at the party
at the football match

'By' or 'on' - by 还是 on

乘坐某种交通工具,通常使用介词 on。
He's on a plane to Chicago.
She's on a ship.
They are sleeping on the train.
Look at the children on the bus!

但是对于汽车,常用的介词则是 in。
He's sitting in a taxi.

by 所强调的是到达目的地的方式。
He goes to work by car.
They usually travel by train.

但是,如果通过走路的方式到达目的地,则应使用介词 on。
Did you come by car or on foot?

The preposition 'to' - 介词 to

要表达人们到哪里去的方向,通常使用介词 to。

I'm going to the cinema.
They are driving to the airport.
We go to that shopping centre every week.

Prepositions of time - 表示时间的介词

at 用于表达精确的时间:
at 4 o'clock
at lunchtime
at midnight
at sunset

in 可与月份、季节、年份、世纪和历史时代连用:
in January
in winter
in 2009
in the 21st century
in the Middle Ages

on 用于表达具体日期和星期:
on Tuesday
on January 19th
on Christmas Day
on my birthday

Uses of prepositions - 介词的使用


- 表示地点关系: at, in, on, over, under
- 表示时间关系: before, after, from at, by, for, in, on, until
- 表示动作方向 from, to, into, onto, off, out of
- 表示不同状态 with, between, by


Prepositions of movement - 方向介词

方向介词通常用于回答 ' 从哪儿来 ' 和 ' 到哪儿去 ' 之类的问题。

from, to, at , by

Production stayed at 300,000 in February. It increased to 400,000 in March. It rose by another 100,000 units in April. Then it fell back to 450,000 in May. It dropped from 450,000 to 400,000 in June.

'In' - 介词 in

介词 in 可用于:
1. 描述地点

例如: Perth is in Western Australia.

2. 描述时间

例如: Nell began high school in 1992.
  I'll be back in an hour.

3. 描述某种状态。

例如: The project manager was in tears.
  The headline is in uppercase.

'Since', 'for' and 'in' - since, for 和 in

since 用来表示从某一个时间点起,到现在为止仍未结束的一个开放的时间段,因此它经常与现在完成时连用。
I've been sick since Christmas.

for 用来表示一个封闭的时间段。
I've been at home for 8 days.

in 用来表达一个确定的时间点。
I bought my car in 1954.

Conjunctions - 连词

Conjunctions - 连词

And, butfor 连接两个主句,because 连接一个主句和一个从句。
Because 是因果连词,when, onceafter 是时间连词,butalthough 是转折连词。

例如: I ate some peaches because I was hungry.

有些连词在表达两个分句前后时间差别时,要求与过去完成时连用,这些连词包括:after, before, as soon asonce

If 表示一般性的如果。
Unless 表示除非,暗含的意思是,说话人认为从句中所表述的条件实现的可能性不大。
Provided that 表示说话人期待从句中所表述的条件能够实现。
In case 用来强调条件本身。


例如: Tom left after he had had dinner. (连词)
  Tom left after dinner. (介词)

so 也可以用作连词,意为因此、所以。

例如: She was tired so she went to bed.

Conjunctions - 连词


and, but 和 for 连接两个主句。because 连接一个主句和一个从句。

Conjunctions - 连词


and (和,并且)
or (或者,还是)
so (因此,所以)
but (却,但是)
because (因为)
since (既然)

Giving reasons and causes - 申述理由和原因

英语中用 because 和 because of 来解释某件事发生的原因。because 是一个连词,用于连接两个独立的句子。

例如: I was late because there was a traffic jam.

because of 是一个介词,因此只能用在名词和代词之前。

例如: I was late because of the traffic jam.

Conjunctions - 连词

一些连词一般与过去完成时搭配使用,表示过去发生动作的不一致。例如: after, before, as soon as, once。


because 用来表示原因;when, once 和 after 表示时间; but 和 although 是让步连词。

'Either', 'neither' - either 和 neither

either... or 表示 ' 要么……要么 '。

neither... nor 表示 ' 既不……也不 '。

Conjunctions - 连词


if 意为如果,引导一般条件句。
unless 用于人们不认为句中条件能实现的情况下。
provided that 表示人们对条件的预期。
in case 表示对条件的强调。

The conjunction 'so' - 连词 so

so 可以作为一个连词使用,意为 ' 因此,所以 '。
She was tired so she went to bed.

The conjunctions 'when' and 'as soon as' - 连词 when 和 as soon as

在连词 when 和 as soon as 之后,既可以使用一般现在时态,也可以使用现在完成时态,句子的意思不会改变。

例如: As soon as I see / have seen the statistics, I'll know the answer.
  When I arrive / have arrived in New York, I'll send you an e-mail.

Whether and if - whether 和 if

在间接疑问句中,whether 和 if 均可使用。

例如: Tom asked Harry whether/if he had read the newspaper.

对于某些特定的动词(如:advise, discuss 或 consider),只能使用 whether。

例如: Ben and Julie discussed whether they should buy a new car.

在介词之后,或在不定式之前,同样要使用 whether。

例如: They talked about whether to get a convertible or a pick-up.
  They couldn't decide whether to order red or silver metallic.

在和 or not 连用时,必须使用 whether。

例如: She wanted to know whether or not he was coming.


'Whether', 'if' - whether 和 if

whether 和 if 的意思都是 ' 是否 '。

I don't know whether he's coming.
I don't know if he's coming.


Expressions with 'so', etc. - so, as 等表达方式

so, so that 因此
so as to 以便
in order to 为了
such as 例如
as for 至于